Cyber Weaving Class

 


Materials needed:


How to know how much yarn you will need for a project

How to figure your number of ends in warp:
    You need to know how many ends per inch you are going to have. Take the yarn you want to use, wind it around a ruler, have the yarn strands touching each other but not crowded. Count how many wraps there are to an inch, divide that figure by 2, that is your Ends Per Inch (EPI)
Lets say that you come out with 10 EPI, that means that you will need 10 ends of yarn for inch of width. If you want to make a scarf 10 inches wide you will need 100 Ends.
         EPI (10) x width of project (10) = 100 (total warp ends)



How to figure the length of your warp:
    You need to know how long you want your scarf to be, I like a scarf that is about 72" not counting the fringe. So for that length you would figure 80".
    Then you need to allow for loom allowance, this is the amount of warp that is needed to reach from the back beam to the front that isn't woven but is wasted. Allow 18" for a table loom and 36" for a floor loom. If you aren't sure of your sett or pattern, it is a good idea to allow a little more length of waste for sampling.
    Length of project, include fringes, + loom allowance = length of each warp thread

Figuring how many yards of warp are needed:
You need your total warp ends x the total length of each warp end = total inches needed for your warp. Divide by 36 to get the yards.

For this scarf project the figures are as follows:
    100 total warp ends x 98" for a table loom or 116" for a floor loom = 9800" (tableloom) or 11600 inches for a floor loom. Divide your total by 36 to get the yards. 273 yds for a tableloom or 323 yds for a floor loom.


Now we will figure what we need for the weft:
    First you take the width in the reed + 10% for take up allowance = one weft thread (1 Pick)
We have a scarf that is 10" in the reed, plus 10% = 11"
You will need to know how densely you are going to weave your scarf, sampling gives you the best method of deciding how closely you want to weave your weft but you can estimate what you think you will be needing. If your sett is 10 DPI, start with weaving 10 weft picks per inch (PPI). That means that you will need 110 inches of weft yarn to weave one inch, if you make your scarf 72" without the fringe you will need 7920 inches of yarn, divide by 36 to know your yards=220yds.



If you don't have a 10 dent reed you can still make a scarf by using the reed you have on hand. If you have a 12 dent reed, you will need 120 ends to make a 10" scarf. If you have a 8 dent reed you will need to be a little more creative, often a yarn that is suitable for a 10 dent will work with a 12 dent also. If you do use a 12 dent and the scarf seems to be weaving up a little more dense than you like you can just weave it looser, fewer picks per inch.
Using an 8 dent is a little trickier. I would take a yarn that is about 1200yd/lb and wind a warp of 100 ends, thread your 8 dent reed like this:
first dent - 1 end, second dent - 1 end, third dent - 1 end, fourth dent - 2 ends, fifth dent 1 end, sixth dent - 1 end, seventh dent - 1 end, eighth dent - 2 ends.

I think we are ready to get on with the class, I have sent out scarf kits and weaving supplies. I have a good supply on hand in case anyone else still needs some supplies. We will go through the yarn amounts and calculations:

The picture is of a warping board that is in the process of having a warp wound on it, the other picture is a closeup view of a the threading cross. You will notice that they are putting a cross at each end of the warp, that is not neccessary, just put one cross in the warp. The method is:

when you get to these end 3 pegs, go to the right of the first peg, around to the left of the second peg, up and around the third and then come back to the right of the second peg and then around the left of the first peg, then go all the way back to the beginning peg at the other end of the warping board. You have just completed your first warp wrap.

Next step in making your warp:


After you have all of your heddles threaded we can tie the warp to the front beam. I like to use a triple twist knot, only make one tie, don't make a knot yet. Here is a good picture of how you tie your warp to the front beam: Click onto the picture to see a larger view. Once you have all of the warp ends tied, you will remove the lease sticks that were holding your threading cross, remove them carefully. After you have tied all the warp ends, go back and pull them all tighter, making the knot secure. You want an evenly tightened warp, not tight enough to twang though!

Now you are ready to Weave! You can either use a boat shuttle or a stick shuttle for the weaving. If you are using a stick shuttle then be sure not to put too much on the stick, if it gets too bulky it will rub on your warp and make it hard to insert through the "shed". On a rigid heddle you will have two "sheds", one will be when you have the rigid heddle reed in the upper position and one where you will have it in the lower position. If you are using a table or floor loom, your "shed" will be when you depress a pedal or flip a lever, to raise the harnesses. The open area is the "shed", this is where you will insert your "weft" yarn that you have put on either a stick or a boat shuttle. Generally I start weaving from the right, insert your shuttle, draw it out with your left hand, leave the weft yarn in a relaxed curve but have your right hand hold the weft yarn at the right edge. Now you beat in the weft, beat is not a very good word to use. Think "place" your weft, don't use force to place the weft, just push your beater towards yourself and push the weft in. Change your shed by using your next treadle or placing the rigid heddle in the lower position. This is your next shed, insert the shuttle from the left to the right, use your left hand to hold the left edge. The first few "picks" (rows) of weaving should be done with a waste yarn, you will remove this when you are done weaving, it will get the warp spread out properly and after an inch or so you can start using the yarn of choice for your scarf. The scarf kits I sell are made to be woven at 10 PPI, that means that you will need to make 10 passes with the shuttle to every 1 inch of weaving. If you think your scarf is getting too stiff then decrease your PPI. You can do this by making sure you are not beating in the weft too firmly so that you are getting too many rows for every inch. I like a scarf to be woven openly so that it drapes on the shoulder so I much prefer to error on the side of too open as opposed to too close. I weave my scarves to 72", when you have woven to this length, do a few picks of the waste yarn again. Cut the scarf off the loom, being careful to leave enough of the warp on the end for a fringe. Remove the waste yarn from one end of the scarf, then take 4 warp ends and make an overhand knot, bringing the knot up close to the scarf. Continue across the edge of the scarf then do the fringe on the other end of the scarf. When you are all done with the fringe knots, lay your scarf out on a table and cut the fringe to the length you want. I ususally make my fringe about 2" long. You now have a scarf that you made yourself, try making a scarf with different yarns, try different EPI and different PPI, you will find there is a wide variance in the type of scarf by making only a few changes.


I have tried to make this as short and as clear as I could, please feel free to contact me for more in-depth help with any questions you may have.

 


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